Troubleshoot & Fix your Golf Shot Errors

Use the illustrated guides below in order to gain a better understanding of the various golf shot errors. The root causes are detailed and the real life scenarios that can lead to them are also provided, all beautifully illustrated. Finally, fixes are proposed to help you get rid of the specific shot errors that are impacting your game and scorecards.

Golf Shot Errors:

Slice | Hook | Push | Pull | Fat | Thin | Top | Sky | Whiff | Overclub | Underclub


Slice – How to Fix Slices

What causes a slice? - Outside-in club path & clubface closed relative to target but open relative to club pathA slice is a ball flight trajectory that sees the ball starting left of the target initially and spinning aggressively to the right. Slicing the ball is considered a golf shot error because the ball will miss the intended target, coming to rest to its right.

Fundamentally, slices are caused by an outside-in club path and a clubface that is closed to the target at impact but open to the club path. The fact that the clubface is not square to the path is what gives it lateral spin, in this case left-to-right, or clockwise.
Slicing a shot generally comes as a result of an open stance combined with an outside-in swing and a grip strength that is too weak.

For full details see our illustrated guide on how to fix slicing the ball.


Hook – How to Fix Hooks

What causes a hook? - Inside-out club path & clubface that is open to the target but closed to the club pathA hook is a ball flight trajectory that sees the ball starting right of the target initially and spinning aggressively to the left. Hooking the ball is considered a golf shot error because the ball will miss the intended target, coming to rest to its left.

Fundamentally, hooks are caused by an inside-out club path and a clubface that is open to the target at impact but closed to the club path. The fact that the clubface is not square to the path is what gives it lateral spin, in this case right-to-left, or counterclockwise. Hooking a shot generally comes as a result of a closed stance combined with an inside-out swing path and a grip strength that is too strong.

For full details see our illustrated guide on how to fix hooking the ball.


Push – How to Fix Pushes

What causes a push? - An inside-out club path and a clubface that is open relative to the target but square relative to the club pathA push is a ball flight trajectory that sees the ball starting right of the target initially and continuing on that path in a straight line. Pushing the ball is considered a golf shot error because although the ball does not spin sideways it will still miss the intended target, coming to rest to the right.

Fundamentally, pushes are caused by an inside-out club path and a clubface that is open to the target at impact but square to the club path. The fact that the clubface is square to the path explains why the ball does not spin sideways. Pushing a shot can come as a result of being aligned right of the target or it can occur through a combination of an inside-out swing and a weak grip.

For full details see our illustrated guide on how to fix pushing the ball.


Pull – How to Fix Pulls

What causes a pull? - Outside-in club path & clubface closed relative to target but square relative to club pathA pull is a ball flight trajectory that sees the ball starting left of the target initially and continuing on that path in a straight line. Pulling the ball is considered a golf shot error because although the ball does not spin sideways it will still miss the intended target, coming to rest to the left.

Fundamentally, pulls are caused by an outside-in club path and a clubface that is closed to the target at impact but square to the club path. The fact that the clubface is square to the path explains why the ball does not spin sideways. Pulling a shot can come as a result of being aligned left of the target or it can occur through a combination of an outside-in swing and a strong grip.

For full details see our illustrated guide on how to fix pulling the ball.


Fat – How to Fix Fat Shots

What causes fat shots? - Bottom of the swing arc too early and/or too lowA fat shot occurs when the clubhead penetrates the ground before it strikes the ball and/or when it digs too deep into the ground. Hitting it fat is considered a golf shot error because the ball will not travel as far as it normally should have and as a result will land short of the intended target.

Fundamentally, fat shots are caused by a bottom of the swing arc that is located too soon in the swing – ahead of the ball – and/or located too low. Address and setup position errors, as well as golf swing errors can lead to fat shots.

For full details see our illustrated guide on how to fix hitting it fat.


Thin – How to Fix Thin Shots

What causes thin shots? - Bottom of the swing arc too high and/or too soonA thin shot occurs when the ball is struck below its equator by the leading edge of the clubhead rather than by the sweet spot area of the clubface. Hitting it thin is considered a golf shot error because the ball will travel much lower than it normally should have given the club that was used to strike it and as a result will see a higher unpredictably in the distance travelled.

Fundamentally, thin shots are caused by a bottom of the swing arc that is located too soon in the swing – ahead of the ball – and/or located too high from the ground. Address and setup position errors, as well as golf swing errors can lead to thin shots.

For full details see our illustrated guide on how to fix hitting it thin.


Top – How to Fix Topped Shots

What causes topped shots? - Bottom of the swing arc too soon or too late, or too highA topped shot occurs when the ball is struck above its equator by the leading edge of the clubhead rather than the sweet spot area of the clubface. Topping the ball is considered a golf shot error because the ball will not travel nearly as far as it normally should have otherwise.

Fundamentally, topped shots are caused by a bottom of the swing arc that is located too high from the ground and/or a bottom of the swing arc that occurs too soon ahead of the ball or too late after the ball. Address and setup position errors, as well as golf swing errors can lead to topped shots.

For full details see our illustrated guide on how to fix topping the ball.


Sky – How to Fix Skied Shots

Sky - Skied shot - Skying the ballA skied shot occurs when the ball is struck by the top edge – or crown – of the clubhead rather than the sweet spot region of the clubface. Skying the ball is considered a golf shot error because the ball will shoot straight up into the air, with little forward movement applied to the ball. As a result, the ball will land well short of its intended target.

Fundamentally, skied shots are caused by a bottom of the swing arc that is located too low in relation to the ball. Ball lie conditions and failure to adjust to them can lead to skied shots, as well as golf swing errors.

For full details see our illustrated guide on how to fix skying the ball.


Whiff – Whiffing the Ball

What causes a whiff? - Bottom of the swing arc too highA whiffed shot occurs when the clubhead fails to make contact with the ball despite an effort to do so through a golf swing. Whiffing the ball is considered a golf shot error because while the ball will remain in its position the golfer will still need to record the attempt as a stroke, in accordance to the rules of golf.

Fundamentally, whiffs are caused by a bottom of the swing arc that is located too high in relation to the ball. Golf swing errors as well as ball lie conditions can lead to whiffed shots.

For full details see our illustrated guide on how to fix whiffing the ball.


Overclub – Overclubbing a Shot

Overclub - Overclubbed shot - Overclubbing a shotAn overclubbed shot occurs when the ball comes to rest well past the target, generally as a result of a misguided club selection. Overclubbing a shot is considered a golf shot error because the selection of another club would have produced a shot that would have ended closer to the target, all other things being equal.

Fundamentally, overclubbed shots are caused by judgement errors that fail to factor in the environment at play and the lie of the ball. Otherwise, the tendency to hit the ball thin can also produce shots that travel well past the target.

For full details see our illustrated guide on how to fix overclub shots.


Underclub – Underclubbing a Shot

Underclub - Underclubbed shot - Underclubbing a shotAn underclubbed shot occurs when the ball lands and stops short of the target, generally as a result of a misguided club selection. Underclubbing a shot is considered a golf shot error because the ball will not reach the intended target, coming to rest well in front.

Fundamentally, underclubbed shots are caused by judgement errors that fail to factor in the environment at play and the lie of the ball. Otherwise, the tendency to hit the ball fat can also produce shots that travel short of the target.

For full details see our illustrated guide on how to fix underclub shots.